Guide Flying Saucer Review - Case Histories - Supplement Three: February 1971 (FSR)

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Some pages about the so-called "Lume di San Tommaso", a strange "meteor" seen sometimes on a church in Ortona, on the Adriatic Sea, since13th century. XLIX, n. Studio critico, Nola, Tipografia Rubino, , fig. Elmo, in "Lares", vol. VIII, n. XXX, no. Appleton Century Co. A canadian EL in St. Lawrence Bay is explained as a Saint Elmo's Fire. Quinta Edizione", Rome, 20 August, , p. Some sketchy details about German cases. The author associates it with methane later discovered in the area. Edizione del pomeriggio", Rome, 11 June , p.

Edizione del pomeriggio", Rome, August 2, , p.

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Brown Colletion of North Carolina Folklore - vol. Hale, , pp. Reprinted Halifax, Nova Scotiza, Canada, , p. In one occasion, they were so scared they had a slight car accident. Volume terzo. La matematica e le scienze del cielo e della terra. Parte seconda. Lael, Ralph I. Some pages about "Ozarks Spook Light". Earth lights of Lake Wanaque, New Jersey in are said to be spotted in the area at least since The so-called "Light of the Andes" phenomenon and other lights on mountains' peaks.

In Ortona, in the Abruzzo region, a "meteor" is said to appear sometimes over a church's pinnacle. Rutledge studies. With two photos. See Schneider e Malthaner , pp. Rutledge's "lights" observed in Piedmont, Missouri. Rutledge's "lights" observations in Piedmont, Missouri. Repeated encouters with a a low-level ball of light in France. Report by Andy Collins, dated February 19, , pp. IF and ELs cases. S", vol. XXVII, n. Fields, in "Analog", 9, The Vestigia Update, in "Vestigia Newsletter", vol.

Dutton, , pp. Notes about the "Marfa Lights". UFOs as phenomena triggered by electrical discharges in the earth's crutst. Harley D. Marlene-Bravo Rongstad to Dr. The phenomenon appears to be well-known in the centro-american country.

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Rutledge, in "Flying Saucer Review", vol. AA2 Cit. Then, the expericence is explained as a case of ignes fatui. A summary prepared by Nigel Watosn is on file by Giuseppe Stilo. The light phenomena of Also an article by David Clarke on ELs. British cases in and in Bunch and Michael K. Reviewed in "Folklore Frontiers" n. Rutledge and Hessdalen.

Grosso, D. Jacobs, C. Rutkowski and M. Saint Elmo's Fires. The spectral composition of lightning flashes is typical of any electrical spark in air. The production of thunder is especially germane to this inquiry because UFOs are nearly always reported to be silent, or to make only a soft, hissing noise. A loud explosion is rarely heard from a UFO but not accompanying the standard flyby of an intensely luminous object. See the chapter on Sounds.

It would appear that the blinding light emitted by UFOs is not associated with extremely high temperatures. Otherwise, thermal expansion of the gases would produce a horrendous racket, like continuous lightning. As no such sounds are reported, it may be concluded that the bright luminosity associated with UFOs is produced at very modest temperatures, compared to lightning.

Another natural phenomenon is also of interest, namely, balls of fire in the air that are known as ball lightning. They consist of brightly shining globules of gas whose sizes normally range between that of a grape and a grapefruit. They lazily drift a few meters off the ground for 1 to 5 seconds but some may last for a minute or so. The globe, or spheroid, typically emits a hissing sound, is not known to radiate heat although it may set fire to objects it touches, and it disappears either silently or with a loud report.

This phenomenon has been observed since ancient times and it is thought to be fairly common.

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Nevertheless, most people would be very puzzled by a display of ball lightning. In the first place, it would remain unidentified, that is, obviously not a plane, bird, or balloon. Secondly, its drifting through the atmosphere would be properly denoted as "flying.

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In a very valid sense, therefore, ball lightning may be considered as an unidentified flying object. However, such an appraisal would have little direct bearing upon the study of UFOs as that term is being used here. Considering the similarities between ball lightning and UFOs as they are sometimes manifest, it is not surprising that the two should be occasionally confused or that reports of the former would show up in the UFO literature.

These extraneous reports should obviously be sorted out and disregarded as some instances in the sample of sightings.

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Numerous theories of ball lightning have been proposed but none thus far is capable of explaining all aspects of the subject. The most promising concept is that a plasma is initiated by the high-frequency, electromagnetic fields associated with ordinary lightning. Frequencies in the range of to 4, MHz million cycles per second have been observed.

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While considerable ionization is present, some luminosity in the spheres may result from excited electronic levels not requiring ionization of the gases. It appears that absorption of energy elevates oxygen atoms to two, well-known, metastable states having decay times of 45 minutes and 8 seconds, respectively.

An intermolecular collision is required to deactivate the state through transfer of angular momentum thereby permitting release of the stored energy. It is then apparently transferred to carbon dioxide which immediately radiates it away in a continuous spectrum.

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Based upon collision rates at 2,F it has been estimated that these metastable states would be dissipated in one second, not inconsistent with the lifetime of ball lightning. Various attempts have been made to estimate the temperature of the luminous gases. While a Russian investigator estimated 14,K for a yellow ball, other estimates are much lower. One observer concluded that the temperature was somewhat greater than 4,K based upon the concentrations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide measured in a trail left by a ball. The range of 4, to 5,Cwas inferred from Wein's law and the red and red-yellow colors commonly reported.

Temperatures as low as C have been considered. Because the witnesses have failed to report any sensation of heat near ball lightning, much preference should be given to the lower estimates. Ball lightning clearly involves a natural mechanism for producing bright luminosity of atmospheric gases at moderate temperatures and this mechanism may well account for the similar luminosity of UFOs.

As mentioned previously, ball lightning appears to be created and sustained by a supply of radiant energy in the frequency range of at least to 4, MHz. This range is in the lower end of a zone of the electromagnetic spectrum from about MHz to , MHz that is known as the microwave region. Lying between the bands used for radio broadcasting and the visible zone, it encompasses the frequencies used for microwave ovens, point-to-point telecommunications, radar, and special bands allocated by the Federal Communications Commission for industrial, scientific, and medical purposes.

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Most important among the latter are the frequencies of and 2,MHz because available tubes, converting direct current to microwave energy at these frequencies, allow high powered applications. For example, a klystron having an average power rating of kW is manufactured. It has been observed in such a plasma that the sensible gas temperature was K whereas the electron temperature exceeded l0,K. Ionization levels and luminosity would be very high while the gas temperature would remain relatively low.